Cover Image

Developmental Integration and Industrialisation in Southern Africa

Since the beginning of decolonisation in Africa, regional integration has become one of the most potent defining characteristics of the continent’s quest for industrialisation and sustainable development. It was understood that the individual continental economies could not achieve the requisite level of industrial development to meet their respective development objectives due to the colonial policy of balkanisation, which divided the continent into small, economically unviable units. In 1992, the Southern African Development Community (SADC) adopted developmental integration, an approach to regional integration to engender industrialisation and address the region’s development challenges. This book offers a critical assessment and examination of this approach as to how it has influenced the industrialisation process in Southern Africa. If so, why has it failed to accelerate the region’s industrialisation and structural transformation process? It contributes significantly to cross-cutting development debates on the African continent, particularly in southern Africa. More importantly, in understanding the nexus between developmental integration and industrialisation.

Siphumelele Duma
University of Johannesburg

Product details


  • 1. Introduction: Understanding SADC’s Quest for Industrialisation
    Siphumelele Duma
  • 2. Industrial Policy and Industrialisation
    Siphumelele Duma
  • 3. Post-independence Approaches to Industrialisation in Africa
    Siphumelele Duma
  • 4. Historical Evolution of SADC: From Cooperation to Integration
    Siphumelele Duma
  • 5. Financing Industrialisation in SADC
    Siphumelele Duma
  • 6. SADC's Industrialisation through Developmental Integration
    Siphumelele Duma
  • 7. Country Case Studies
    Siphumelele Duma
  • 8. 30 Years of the Developmental Integration Quest for Industrialisation in SADC
    Siphumelele Duma
  • 9. Conclusion: Re-engineering the State to Take Action in SADC
    Siphumelele Duma


Adebanwi, W. (2017). The Political Economy of Everyday Life in Africa: Beyond the Margins. (ed.), (New edition). Boydell and Brewer, International Food Policy Research Institute.

Adedeji, A. (1984). The Monrovia Strategy and the Lagos Plan of Action for African Development - Five years after. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 6(11), 951–952, November.

Adewale, A. R. (2017). Import substitution industrialisation and economic growth – Evidence from the group of BRICS countries. Future Business Journal, 3(2), 138–158.

AfDB. (2019). Southern Africa Economic Outlook: Regional Integration and Private Sector Development.

AfDB, OECD, UNDP, & UNECA. (2012). Mauritius.

AfDB Socio Economic Database. (2019). AFDB Socio Economic Database, 1960-2019.

Africa Growth Initiative. (2016). Foresight Africa: Top Priorities for the Continent in 2016 (Issue January).

African Development Bank. (2018). African Economic Outlook.

African Development Bank. (2020). Production approach: GDP at current price (% of GDP). Africa Information Highway Portal.

African Development Bank Group. (2017). Industrialize Africa: Strategies, Policies, Institutions, and Financing.

African Union. (2008). Action Plan for the Accelerated Industrial Development of Africa.

African Union. (2021). Regional Economic Communities (RECs) | African Union. Policy priorities for international trade and jobs.

Ajakaiye, O., Drazen, A., & Karugia, J. (2008). Political economy and economic development in Africa: An overview. Journal of African Economics, 17(1), 3–17.

Ajakaiye, O., & Page, J. (2012). Industrialisation and economic tansformation in Africa: Introduction and overview. Journal of African Economies, 21(2), 3–18.

Ake, C. (1981). A political economy of Africa. Longman.

Alcorta, L. (2015). Industrialization, employment and the sustainable development agenda. Development (Basingstoke), 58(4), 528–539.

Alpha Diallo, M. (2016). Regional integration in West Africa (1960-2015): Balance and perspectives. Brazilian Journal of African Studies, 1(1), 234–254.

Altenburg, T. (2013). Can industrial policy work under neopatrimonial rule? In Adam Szirmai, Wim Naudé, & Ludovico Alcorta (Eds.), Pathways to Industrialization in the Twenty-First Century (pp. 345–372). Oxford University Press.

Aly, A. A. H. M. (1994). Economic cooperation in Africa: In search of direction. Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Amin, S. (1999). Regionalization in response to polarizing globalization. In Osvaldo Sunkel & András Inotai (Eds.), Globalism and the New Regionalism (pp. 54–84). Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Amos, S. (2010). The role of South Africa in SADC regional integration: The making or breaking of the organization. Journal of International Commercial Law and Technology, 5(3), 124–131.

Andreoni, A., & Chang, H. J. (2016). Industrial policy and the future of manufacturing. Economia e Politica Industriale, 43(4), 491–502.

Andreoni, A., & Chang, H. J. (2019). The political economy of industrial policy: Structural interdependencies, policy alignment and conflict management. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 48, 136–150., A., & Gregory, M. (2013). Why and how does manufacturing still matter: Old rationales, new realities. In Revue d’Economie Industrielle (Vol. 144, Issue 4).

Anglin, D. G. (1983). Economic liberation and regional cooperation in Southern Africa: SADCC and PTA. International Organization, 37(4), 681–711.

Ankomah, K. (1969). Unity or poverty? The economics of pan-Africanism by Reginale H. Green and Ann Seidman London, Penguin Books, 1968, pp. 364. 7s. 6d. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 7(1), 159–161.

Aryeetey, E., & Moyo, N. (2012). Industrialisation for structural transformation in Africa: Appropriate roles for the state. Journal of African Economies, 21(2), 55–85.

Asante, S. K. B. (1997a). Experience of regionalism in Africa: A critical appraisal. In Regionalism and Africa’s Development (1st ed.). Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Asante, S. K. B. (1997b). Introduction: Africa and the world of regionalism: Old and new. In Regionalism and Africa’s Development (1st ed.). Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Asante, S. K. B. (1997c). Regionalism as a key element of African development strategy. In Regionalism and Africa’s Development (1st ed., pp. 17–44). Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Asante, S. K. B. (1997d). Regionalism and Africa’s Development. Macmillan Press.

Asante, S. K. B. (2000). Overcoming the development problem of the nation-state in Africa through regionalism. South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, 3(1), 1–18.

Asante, S. K. B. (2016). The political economy of Africa’s region-building and regional integration. In D. Levine, & D. H., Nagar (Ed.), Region-Building in Africa: Political and Economic Challenges (pp. 127–140). Palgrave Macmillan.

Asian Development Bank (ADB). (2018). The Ha Noi Action Plan 2018-2022 : March 2018.

Aworawo, F. (2016). Regional integration and development in Africa: Between the rock and a hard place. Journal of International Studies, 12, 19–30.

Baer, W. (1972). Import substitution and industrialization in Latin America: Experiences and interpretations. Latin American Research Review, 7(1), 95–122.

Baier, S. L., Bergstrand, J. H., Egger, P., & McLaughlin, P. A. (2008). Do economic integration agreements actually work? Issues in understanding the causes and consequences of the growth of regionalism. World Economy, 31(4), 461–497.

Baloyi, B., & Zengeni, T. (2015). Regional Industrialization research project: Case study on transport infrastructure value chain in South Africa and Mozambique (Working Paper 7/2015; Regional Industrialization ).

Bárcena, A., & Prado, A. (2016). Neostructuralism and heterodox thinking in Latin America and the Caribbean in the early twenty-first century (A. Bárcena & A. Prado (eds.)). ECLAC.

Barnes, J., & Kaplinsky, R. (2000). Globalization and the death of the local firm? The automobile components sector in South Africa. Regional Studies, 34(9), 797–812.

Bathla, S., D’Souza, A., & Joshi, P. K. (2019). Structural transformation in Southeast Asian countries and key drivers. SSRN Elsevier. (No. 01856; Issue July).

BDC. (2021). Botswana Development Corporation Limited (BDC) | Devex.

Beegle, K. G., Chenal, J., Christiaensen, L., Joseph, R., Meltzer, J. P., Page, J., Sy, A., Andriamananjara, S., Berube, A., Bhorat, H., Byanyima, W., Dollar, D., Gertz, G., Ibrahim, M., Kharas, H., Mbaku, J. M., Mcmillan, M., Ndung, N., Okonjo-Iweala, N., … Siba, E. (2016). Industrialisation and structural change: Can Sub-Saharan Africa develop without factories?Ferdi (No. 143). Article 143.

Berg, E., Amoako, K. Y., Gusten, R., Meerman, J., & Tidrick, G. (1981). Accelerated development in Sub-Saharan Africa: An agenda for action. In Foreign Affairs (Vol. 76, Issue 5).

Bianchi, P., & Labory, S. (2019). Manufacturing regimes and transitional paths: Lessons for industrial policy. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 48, 24–31.

Bielschowsky, R. (2009). Sixty years of Eclac: Structuralism and neo-structuralism. Cepal Review, 97, 171–192.

Bitar, S. (1988). Neo-conservatism versus neo-structuralism in Latin America. In Cepal Review (No. 34; Cepal Review, Issue 34).

Botlhale, E. (2017). Enhancing public project implementation in Botswana during the NDP 11 period. Africa’s Public Service Delivery and Performance Review, 5(1), 9.

Botswana Ministry of Finance and Development Planning. (1995). Financial Assistance Policy (FAP). Subsidies - Botswana.

Briceño Ruiz, J. (2017). Raúl Prebisch and the theory of regional economic integration. In M. E. Margulis (Ed.), The Global Political Economy of Raúl Prebisch (1st ed., pp. 61–77). Routledge.

Byiers, B., Karaki, K., & Woolfrey, S. (2018). The political economy of regional industrialisation strategies. In Working Paper (No. 237; Political Economy Dynamics of Regional Organisations in Africa).

Byiers, B. B., Vanheukelom, J., & Woolfrey, S. (2018). SADC industrialisation: Where regional agendas meet domestic interests (No. 232).

Cantore, N., Clara, M., Lavopa, A., & Soare, C. (2017). Manufacturing as an engine of growth: Which is the best fuel? Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 42, 56–66.

Cawthra, G. (2005). Mauritius: An exemplary of democracy, development and peace for the Southern Africa Development Community? Africa Insight, 35(1).

Chabane, N., Goldstein, A., & Roberts, S. (2006). The changing face and strategies of big business in South Africa: More than a decade of political democracy. Industrial and Corporate Change, 15(3), 549–577.

Chandra, R. (1992). Industrialization and Development in the Third World.Google Books. Routledge.

Chang, H. (1998). Evaluating the current industrial policy of South Africa. Transformation, 36, 51–72.

Chang, H. (2002). Kicking away the ladder: Development strategy in historical perspective. In Source: Challenge (Issue 5). Anthem Press.

Chang, H. J., & Andreoni, A. (2020). Industrial policy in the 21st century. Development and Change, 51(2), 324–351.

Chan Sun, C, Chittoo, H., & Sukon, K. (2016). Evolution of critical success factors in the clothing and textile industry in Mauritius. Global Journals Inc, 16.

Chikabwi, D., Chidoko, C., & Mudzingiri, C. (2017). Manufacturing sector productivity growth drivers: Evidence from SADC member states. African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development, 9(2), 163–171.

Chingono, M., & Nakana, S. (2009). The challenges of regional integration in Southern Africa. African Journal of Political Science and International Relations, 3(10), 396–408.

Ciarli, T., & Di Maio, M. (2015). Theoretical Aaguments for industrialisation-driven growth and economic development. In F. A. S. T. Matambalya (Ed.), African Industrial Development and European Union Co-Operation: Prospects for a Reengineered Partnership (pp. 30–68). Taylor & Francis Group.

Cilliers, J. (2018). Made in Africa: Manufacturing and the fourth industrial revolution. Institute for Security Studies (April).

Clark, N. (1995). Manufacturing apartheid: State corporations in South Africa. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 542, 231. apartheid%3A State corporations in South Africa

Cobbe, J., & Samatar, A. I. (1999). An African miracle: State and class leadership and colonial legacy in Botswana development. The International Journal of African Historical Studies, 32(1), 132.

COMESA. (1993). Treaty Establishing the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa.

Common Wealth Network. (2019). Find industry and manufacturing expertise in Botswana.

Cooper, R. N., & Maddison, A. (2001). The world economy: A millennial perspective. Foreign Affairs, 80(6), 176.

Correa, N., & Kanatsouli, F. (2018). Industrial Development in the least Developed Countries (26/2018).

Cypher, J. M. (2018). From structuralism to neoliberal depredation and beyond: Economic transformations and labor policies in Latin America, 1950–2016. Latin American Perspectives, 45(1), 24–46.

D’SA, R. M. (1983). The Lagos plan of action — Legal mechanisms for co-operation between the organisation of African Unity and the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa. Journal of African Law, 27(1), 4–21.

Dadush, U. (2015). Is Manufacturing Still a Key to Growth? pp. 15/07, February.

Da Rin, M., & Hellmann, T. (2001). Banks as Catalysts for Industrialization.,to%20make%20profits%20from%20coordination.

Dassah, M. O. (2011). Developmental state as a model for Africa's development: Is its emergence imminent? Cape Penisula, 46(1), 588–607.

Davies, R. (1992). Economic growth in a post-apartheid South Africa: Its significance for relations with other African countries. Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 11(1), 51–71.

Davies, R. (1994). Approaches to regional integration in the Southern African context. Africa Insight, 24(1), 11–17.

Dent, C. M. (2008). The Asian Development Bank and developmental regionalism in East Asia. Third World Quarterly, 29(4), 767–786.

Dent, C. M., & Richter, P. (2011). Sub-regional cooperation and developmental regionalism: The case of BIMP-EAGA. Contemporary South East Asia, 33(1), 29.

Department of Trade and Industry (DTI). (2007a). Implementation of Government’s National Industrial Policy Framework : Industrial Policy Action Plan (August).

Department of Trade & Industry (DTI). (2007b). National Industrial Policy Framework.

Department of Trade & Industry (DTI). (2016). Economic Sectors, Employment and Infrastructure Development Cluster.

ECA. (2009). Impact of the Global Financial Crisis and Recession on the SADC Mining Sector. 64546. pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Eder, J. (2019). Regional integration and industrialization policies in Latin America: The story of a conflictive love. Journal of Social Studies, 1(68), 38–50.

Evans, J. (2010). The neoliberal turn in the SADC: Regional integration and disintegration (1).

Fauzel, S. (2016). Trade and inclusive development in Mauritius: Evidence from a dynamic framework. In H. Musahara (Ed.), Inclusive Growth and Development Issues in Eastern. OSSREA.,+growth+%22var+model%22&ots=3lPl47UVOE&sig=gYBtx3g0k_ZQBrPcVwLo3cI1wN8

Fessehaie, J., & Rustomjee, Z. (2018). Resource-based industrialisation in Southern Africa: Domestic policies, corporate strategies and regional dynamics. Development Southern Africa, 35(3), 404–418.

Fforde, A. (2018). Yes, but what about services: Is development doctrine changing? Canadian Journal of Development Studies, 39(4), 550–568.

Fischer, A. M. (2015). The end of peripheries? On the enduring relevance of structuralism for understanding contemporary global development. Development and Change, 46(4), 700–732.

Fotoyi, A., Tetani, S., Tsedu, M., & Wood, C. (2016). Analysis of Existing Industrial Policies and the State of Implementation in South Africa.

Frankel, J. (2010). Mauritius: African Success Story Faculty Research Working Paper Series (No. RWP10-036; HKS Faculty Research Working Paper Series).

Frankenhoff, C. A. (1962). The Prebisch thesis: A theory of industrialism for Latin America. Journal of Inter-American Studies, 4(2), 185–206.

French-Davis, R. (2016). Neostructuralism and macroeconomics for development. In A. Bárcena & A. Prado (Eds.), Neostructuralism and Heterodox Thinking in Latin America and the Caribbean in the Early Twenty-First Century (pp. 117–138). ECLAC.

French-Davis, R., & Torres, M. (2020). Neo-structuralism. In M. Vernengo, E., Caldentey, & B. Rosser Jr (Eds.), The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (pp. 1–11). Palgrave Macmillan.

Gehl Sampath, P. (2014). Industrial development for Africa: Trade, technology and the role of the state. African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development, 6(5), 439–453.

Geiger, L. T. (1991). Evaluating export expansion strategy for economic development: Selected LDCs. Eastern Economic Journal, 17(3), 319–330.

Gerschenkron, A. (1962). Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective: A Book of Essays. Oxford University Press.

Gofhamodimo, B. (2018). What reforms are necessary for the SADC trade regime to facilitate accelerated industrialisation of the region? In T. Hartzenberg, E. Gerhard, P. Kalenga, & T. Chidede (Eds.), Monitoring Regional Integration in Southern Africa (15th ed., pp. 95–120). Trade Law Centre.

Goga, S., Bosiu, T., & Bell, J. (2019). The Role of Development Finance in the Industrialisation of the South African Economy (Working Paper 9/2019).

Grabowski, R. (1994). Import substitution, export promotion, and the state in economic development. The Journal of Developing Areas, 28(4), 535–554.

Green, R., & Seidman, A. (1969). Unity or Poverty? The Economics of Pan-Africanism (1st ed.). Penguin Books.

Greig, A., Turner, M., & D’Arcy, P. (2011). The fragility of success: Repositioning Mauritian development in the twenty-first century. Island Studies Journal, 6(2), 157–178.

Griffith-Jones, S., & Cozzi, G. (2017). The roles of development banks: How they can promote investments in Europe and globally. In J. Stiglitz & A. Noman (Eds.), Efficiency, Finance, and Varieties of Industrial Policy (pp. 131–155). Columbia University Press.

Guadagno, F. (2016). The determinants of industrialisation in developing countries, 1960‐2005. In Accounting & Finance (No. 2016–031; UNU-MERIT, Vol. 24, Issue 1). Gumede, W. (2011). The role of South Africa’s state-owned development finance institutions in building as democratic development state. Development Planning Division Working Paper Series, (No. 29), May.

Gumede, V. (2015). Political Economy of Post-apartheid South Africa. CODESRIA.

Haarløv, J. (1997). Regional cooperation and integration within industry and trade in Southern Africa : general approaches, SADCC, and the World Bank. Avebury.

Habiyaremye, A. (2020). Fast-tracking the SADC integration agenda to unlock regional collaboration gains along growth corridors in Southern Africa (2020/95; WIDER Working Paper Series).

Hailu, M. B. (2014). Regional economic integration in Africa: An introduction. Mizan Law Review, 8(2), 299–332.

Hakemy, S. (2017). Kicking away the ladder: Development strategy in historical perspective. In Kicking Away the Ladder: Development Strategy in Historical Perspective.

Haraguchi, N., Cheng, C. F. C., Smeets, E., Fang, C. (2017). The Importance of Manufacturing in Economic Development: Has This Changed? World Development, 93, 293–315.

Haraguchi, N., Martorano, B., Sanfilippo, M., & Haraguchi, N. (2019). What factors drive successful industrialization? Evidence and implications for developing countries. In Structural Change and Economic Dynamics (7/2017) (Inclusive and Sustainable Industrial Development Working Paper Series, Vol. 49).

Hartzenberg, T., & Kalenga, P. (2015). National policies and regional integration in the South African Development Community (2015/056; June).

Hauge, J. (2020). Industrial policy in the era of global value chains: Towards a developmentalist framework drawing on the industrialisation experiences of South Korea and Taiwan. The World Economy,

Hausmann, R., Hwang, J., & Rodrik, D. (2007). What you export matters. Journal of Economic Growth, 12(1), 1–25.

Helmut, A. & Grimm, M. (2017). Industrialisation in Africa: Challenges and Opportunities. econstor.

Hewitt, T., Johnson, H., & Wield, D. (1992). Industrialization and Development. Oxford University Press in association with the Open University.

Hillbom, E. (2008). Diamonds or development? A structural assessment of Botswana’s forty years of success. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 46(2), 191–214.

Hillbom, E. (2012). Botswana: A development-oriented gate-keeping state — A reply to Ian Taylor. African Affairs, 111(444), 477–482.

Hobday, M. (2013). Learning from Asia’s success: Beyond simplistic ‘lesson-making’. In L. A. Adam Szirmai, Wim Naudé (Ed.), Pathways to Industrialization in the Twenty-First Century (pp. 131–154). Oxford University Press.

Hosono, A. (2017). Industrial strategies. In A. Noman & J. E. Stiglitz (Eds.), Industrial Strategies (pp. 306–352). Columbia University Press.

Hwang, K. D. (2007). The historical evolution of SADC(C) and regionalism in Southern Africa. International Area Studies Review, 10(1), 55–72.

Imbs, J., & Wacziarg, R. (2003). Stages of diversification. American Economic Review, 93(1), 63–86.

Isike, C. (2020). Profit vs public health: The crisis of liberal democracy and universal healthcare in Africa. Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities & Social Sciences, 12(2), 263–267.

Ismail, F. (2017). A developmental regionalism approach to the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCTA). Law and Development Review, 10(1), 119–146.

Ismail, F. (2018). Developmental Regionalism Approach to the AfCFTA (Issue December 2018).

ITC. (2021). Trade Map: Bilateral trade between the Southern African Development Community (SADC).

Jalloh, C. C., & Abass, A. (2014). Foreword: Regional integration in Africa. African Journal of Legal Studies, 7(1), 1–5.

James, W. E., & Fujita, N. (1989). Import substitution and export promotion in the growth of the Indonesian industrial sector. ASEAN Economic Bulletin, 6(1), 59–70.

Jayanthakumaran, K. (2014). Industrialisation: Import Substitution to Export Promotion.

Jiboku, P. A. (2017). The challenge of regional economic integration in Africa: Theory and reality. Africa’s Public Service Delivery and Performance Review, 3(4), 5.

Kah, H. K. (2012). “Africa Must Unite”: Vindicating Kwame Nkrumah and uniting Africa against global destruction. The Journal of Pan African Studies (Vol. 4, Issue 10).

Kaldor, N. (1966). Causes of the Slow Rate of Economic Growth of the United Kingdom: An Inaugural Lecture. Cambridge University Press.

Kaldor, N. (1967). Strategic Factors in Economic Development. New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University.

Kaplinsky, R., Joffe, A., Kaplan, D., & Lewis, D. (1995). Improving Manufacturing Performance in South Africa: Report of the Industrial Strategy Project. UCT Press.

Kapunda, S. M. (2017). Industrial and Development Economics: An African Perspective. CODESRIA. and development economics %3A an Af

Karunaratne, N. D. (1980). Export-oriented industrialization strategies. Intereconomics, 15(5), 217–223.

Karuri-Sebina, G., Sall, A., Maharajh, R., & Segobye, A. (2012). Fictions, factors and futures: Reflections on Africa’s impressive growth. Development (Basingstoke), 55(4), 491–496.

Khan, S. R., & Khan, S. R. (1996). Structural Adjustment, Industrialisation, and Export Promotion (Vol. 35, Issue 4).

Khanie, G. (2020). Key Drivers of Industrial Growth: A Case Study of Botswana’s Manufacturing Sector (BIDPA Working Paper Series, No. 73).

Kitipov, J. (2012). African Integration and inter-regional economic communities and their relationship with the European Union. 1, 21–44.

Kormawa, P., & Jerome, A. (2015). Renewing industrialization strategies in Africa. In O. Badiane & T. Makombe (Eds.), Beyond a Middle Income Africa: Transforming African Economies for Sustained Growth with Rising Employment and Incomes (pp. 1–32).

Lall, S. (2000). Selective Industrial and Trade Policies in Developing Countries: Theoretical and Empirical Issues (QEH Working Paper Series, No. 48).

Lall, S. (2004). Reinventing Industrial Strategy: The Role of Government Policy in Building Industrial Competitiveness (G-24 Discussion Paper Series, No. 28).

Lall, S., & Wangwe, S. (1998). Industrial policy and industrialisation in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of African Economies, 7(Suppl. 1), 70–107.

Langa, E., & Nkhonjera, M. (2018). Fostering regional industrialisation through backward linkages from the extractive sector: The case of the capital equipment sector in Mozambique and South Africa. In 23rd REPOA Annual Research Workshop.

Lee, M. C. (1989). SADCC: The Political Economy of Development in Southern Africa (1st ed.). Winston-Derek.

Lee, M. (2002). Regionalism in Africa: A part of problem or a part of solution. Polis, 9(2), 1–24.

Lee, M. C. (2003). The Political Economy of Regionalism in Southern Africa. Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Leftwich, A. (1995). Bringing politics back in: Towards a model of the developmental state. The Journal of Development Studies, 31(3), 400–427.

Leftwich, A. (1996). Democracy and development: Theory and practice. Polity Press.

Leiva, F. I. (2008). Toward a critique of Latin American neostructuralism. Latin American Politics and Society, 50(4), 1–25.

Libanio, G., & Moro, S. (2007). Manufacturing industry and economic growth in Latin America: A Kaldorian approach. In Proceedings of the 37th Brazilian Economics Meeting.ânio/9a05134a7df18f106e70416b51dbebe7f1d8ea37Lin, J. Y. (2010). New Structural Economics - A Framework for Rethinking Development (Policy Research Working Paper, No. 5197).

Lin, J. Y. (2011). From flying geese to leading dragons: New opportunities and strategies for structural transformation in developing countries. WIDER Annual Lecture 15, 3(4), 397–409.

Lin, J., & Monga, C. (2011). DPR debate: Growth identification and facilitation. The role of the state in the dynamics of structural change. Development Policy Review, 29(3), 259–310.

Lin, J. Y., & Vu, K. M. (2014). The practice of industrial policy: Lessons for Africa, Co-ordination through an Asian lens.

Lowitt, S. (2017). Current Heterodox Industrial Policy Thinking: A Muting of Aspirations or Sound, Pragmatic Suggestions?

Lundvall, B.-Å., & Lema, R. (2014). Growth and structural change in Africa: Development strategies for the learning economy. Technology, Innovation and Development, 6(5), 455–466.

Mambo, C. (2021). SADC needs to operate its own development fund. In Southern African Research and Documentation Centre. SARDC.

Mangu, A. M. B. (2020). South Africa and regional integration in Africa: Challenges and prospects. In A. M. B. Mangu (Ed.), Regional Integration in Africa: What Role for South Africa (pp. 185–190). Brill.

Mapuva, J., & Muyengwa-Mapuva, L. (2014). The SADC regional bloc: What challenges and prospects for regional integration? Law, Democracy & Development, 18(1), 22.

Marti, D. F., & Ssenkubuge, I. (2009). Industrialisation and industrial policy in Africa: Is it policy priority? In Policy (No. 20).

Martins, P. M. G. (2019). Structural change: Pace, patterns and determinants. Review of Development Economics, 23(1), 1–32.

Matambalya, F. A. S. T. (2015a). Pan-African and multilateral schemes and Africa’s industrialisation: Synthesis of substance and legacy. In F. A. S. T. Matambalya (Ed.), African Industrial Development and European Union Co-Operation: Prospects for a Reengineered Partnership (pp. 164–183). Taylor & Francis Group.

Matambalya, F. A. S. T. (2015b). The urge to industrialise African countries: Which lessons can be learnt from the empirics of the process ? In F. A. S. T. Matambalya (Ed.), African Industrial Development and European Union Co-Operation: Prospects for a Reengineered Partnership (pp. 70–86). Taylor & Francis Group.

Mazzucato, M. (2015). Entrepreneurial state: Debunking public vs. private sector myths. Science and Public Policy (2nd ed., Vol. 42, Issue 1). Anthem Press.

Mazzucato, M. (2016). From market fixing to market-creating: A new framework for innovation policy. Industrial Innovation, 23(02), 140–156.

Mazzucato, M., & Semieniuk, G. (2017). Public financing of innovation: New questions. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 33(1), 24–48.

Mbuta, W. (2011). A Re-Examination of SADC Industrial Development Policies and Lessons for SACU (Working Paper Series 2011-01, No. 2011–01).

McCarthy, C. (2014). Industrial Policy in Southern African Regional Integration and Development (Tralac Working Paper, May; S14WP02/2014).

McMillan, M., Rodrik, D., Sepulveda, C., & Sepúlveda, C. (2017). Structural Change, Fundamentals and Growth: A Framework and Case Studies. International Food Policy Research Institute.

Meisenhelder, T. (1997). The developmental state in Mauritius. Journal of Modern African Studies, 35(2), 279–297.

Melamid, A., & Lewis, W. A. (1954). Report on industrialisation and the Gold Coast. Economic Geography, 30(4), 374.

Mendes, A. P. F., Bertella, M. A., & Teixeira, R. F. A. P. (2014). Industrialization in Sub-Saharan Africa and import substitution policy. Revista de Economia Política, 34(1), 120–138.

Mensah, J. (2019). Sustainable development: Meaning, history, principles, pillars, and implications for human action: Literature review. Cogent Social Sciences, 5(1).

Mezouaghi, M., & El Aynaoui, K. (2018). Africa on the road to industrialization? Political economy and historical trajectories. Thematic introduction. Contemporary Africa, 266, 11–27.

Mijiyawa, A. G. (2017). Drivers of structural transformation: The case of the manufacturing sector in Africa. World Development, 99, 141–159.

Minstat, A., Markely, S., & Saint Martin, E. (2021). Improving public finance, boosting infrastructure: Three priority actions for Africa’s development after COVID-19 (No. 63; In Tthe run up to the Summit on Financing African Economies).

Missio, F., Jayme, F. G., & José Luís Oreiro, J. R. (2015). The structuralist tradition in economics: Methodological and macroeconomics aspects. Revista de Economia Política, 35(2), 247–266.

Mkandawire, T. (2010). From maladjusted states to democratic developmental states in Africa. Constructing a Democratic Developmental State in …, January 2010, 59–87.

Mkandawire, T., & Soludo, C. C. (1998). Our Continent, Our Future: African Perspectives on Structural Adjustment.

Mkwizu, K. H. (2021). Impacts and challenges of Southern African Development Community’s industrialization agenda on Botswana and Tanzania. Public Administration and Policy, 24(2), 212–223.

Mkwizu, K., Monametsi, G., & Swai, T. (2019). Regional and Domestic Industrialisation Policies in Africa: Case Study of Two SADC States. University of Dar es Salaam.

Mohamed, S. (2010). The state of the South African economy. In J. Daniel, P. Naidoo, D. Pillay, & R. Southall (Eds.), New South African Review 1: Development or Decline? (pp. 39–64). Wits University Press.

Monga, C. Lestin. (2012). Shifting gears: Igniting structural transformation in Africa. Journal of African Economies, 21(2), 19–54.

Monyae, D., & Nganje, F. (2019). BRICS and regional industrialisation in Southern Africa - partner or spoiler? The Case of China. Africa Insight, 48(4).

Morris, M., & Fessehaie, J. (2014). The industrialisation challenge for Africa: Towards a commodities based industrialisation path. Journal of African Trade, 1(1), 25–36.

Moyo, T. (2011). Industrial Development in the Era of Globalisation: Towards a Strategic Framework for Africa’s Industrialisation.

Moyo, T. (2016). Promoting industrialisation in Mauritius, South Africa and Botswana: Lessons for the future. Africa Development, 41(3), 139–163.

Moyo, T. (2017). Promoting inclusive and sustainable industrialisation in Africa: A review of progress, challenges and prospects. The 2nd Annual International Conference on Public Administration and Development Alternatives 26 - 28 July 2017, Tlotlo Hotel, Gaborone, Botswana, July, 365–375.

Moyo, T. (2020a). Globalisation and industrialisation in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC). Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 45(2), 103–124.

Moyo, T. (2020b). Industrialization in Africa in the era of globalization: Challenges, opportunities and prospects with a focus on manufacturing. In S. O. Oloruntoba & T. Falola (Eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Political Economy (pp. 757–779). Palgrave Macmillan.

Mukisa, R. S., & Thompson, B. (1995). Prerequisites for economic integration in Africa: An analysis of the Abuja Treaty. Africa Today, 42(4), 56–80.

Mureverwi, B. (2016). Revised RISDP: A New Growth Path for SADC’s Industrial Development? (S16TB06/2016).

Nagaraj, R. (2017). Economic reforms and manufacturing sector growth need for reconfiguring the industrialisation model. Economic & Political Weekly, 3(2), 61–68.

Nath, S., & Madhoo, Y. N. (2003). Explaining African growth performance: The case of Mauritius. In Explaining African Growth Performance (Growth Working Paper, No. 1).

National Planning Commission. (2012). National Development Plan (2030).

National Treasury. (2019). Economic transformation, inclusive growth, and competitiveness: Towards an economic strategy for South Africa.

Naude, W., & Szirmai, A. (2013). Pathways to Industrialization. In A. Szirmai & Naudé, W. (Eds.), Pathways to Industrialization in the Twenty-First Century (pp. 415–428). Oxford University Press.

Naudé, W., & Szirmai, A. (2012). The importance of manufacturing in economic development: Past, present and future perspectives. In UNU-MERIT Working Paper Series (Vols. 2012–41, Issue 31).

Naudé, W., Szirmai, A., & Lavopa, A. (2013). Industrialization Lessons from BRICS: A Comparative Analysis (No. 7543).

NBF. (2018). SADC increases the voice of the private sector for regional industrialisation and integration. Press Release.

Ndayi, Z. (2011). In quest of regional integration in Africa: Can the AU/NEPAD reconcile economic plurilateralism with developmental regionalism? International Journal of African Renaissance Studies - Multi-, Inter- and Transdisciplinarity, 6(1), 78–93.

Ndikumana, L. (1999). Regionalism and Africa’s development: Expectations, reality and challenges. African Studies Review, 42(1), 147–149.

Nem Singh, J., & Ovadia, J. S. (2018). The theory and practice of building developmental states in the Global South. Third World Quarterly, 39(6), 1033–1055.

Nesadurai, H. E. S. (2003). Attempting developmental regionalism through AFTA: The domestic sources of regional governance. Third World Quarterly, 24(2), 235–253.

Nizeimana, J. B., & Nhema, A. G. (2016). Industrialising the Southern African Development Community (SADC) economies: Prospects and challenges. Journal of Social Science Studies, 3(2), 1–7.

Noman, A., & Stiglitz, J. E. (2017). Efficiency, Finance, and Varieties of Industrial Policy (J. A. Ocampo & J. E. Stiglitz (eds.)). Columbia University Press.

Nshimbi, C. C. (2018). Rethinking regional integration for development and eradication of poverty in Africa: The missing link. In S. O. Oloruntoba & T. Falola (Eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of African Politics, Governance and Development (pp. 645–660). Palgrave Macmillan US.

Nubong, G. (2018). Regional Economic Communities and the African Union in the pursuit of industrialisation: Interface testing and the creation of synergies in the case of SADC. In T. Hartzenberg, E. Gerhard, P. Kalenga, & T. Chidede (Eds.), Monitoring Regional Integration in Southern Africa (15th ed., pp. 49–71). Trade Law Centre.

Nyirabu, M. (2004). Appraising regional integration in Southern Africa. African Security Review, 13(1), 21–32.

Nzau, M. (2010). Africa’s industrialization debate: A critical analysis. The Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa, 2(1), 146–165.

OAU. (1980a). Lagos Plan of Action.

OAU. (1980b). Lagos plan of action for the economic development of Africa, 1980-2000. In Lagos Plan of Action (2nd (rev.)). International Institute for Labour Studies.

OAU. (1991). Abuja Treaty for Establishing African Economic Community.

OAU, ECA, & UNIDO. (1997). Industrial Development Decade for Africa (IDDA) II Report of the Mid-Term Programme Evaluation*.

Obinyeluaku, M. (2015). Exploring Innovation in Industrial Development for Inclusive and Transformative Development in Africa. (Regional Manufacturing and Industrial Policy 2). file:///C:/Users/CA$H/Downloads/industrialisation_in_africa.pdf

Odijie, M. E. (2019). The need for industrial policy coordination in the African Continental Free Trade Area. African Affairs, 118(470), 182–193.

Olarreaga, M., Sperlich, S., & Trachsel, V. (2017). Export promotion: What works? (Development Policies, No. 184).

Oman, C. P., & Wignaraja, G. (1991). Structuralism and dependency. In The Postwar Evolution of Development Thinking. Palgrave Macmillan.

Önis, Z. (1995). The limits of neoliberalism: Toward a reformulation of development theory. Journal of Economic Issues, 29(1), 97–119.

Opoku, E. E. O., & Yan, I. K. M. (2019). Industrialization as a driver of sustainable economic growth in Africa. Journal of International Trade and Economic Development, 28(1), 30–56.

Orlenko, L. (2017). Necessary conditions for new industrialization and import substitution. Problems of Economic Transition, 59(1–3), 156–166.

Ovadia, J. S., & Wolf, C. (2018). Studying the developmental state: Theory and method in research on industrial policy and state-led development in Africa. Third World Quarterly, 39(6), 1056–1076.

Owusu, F., & Ismail Samatar, A. (1997). Industrial strategy and the African state: The Botswana experience. Canadian Journal of African Studies / Revue Canadienne Des Études Africaines, 31(2), 268–299.

Page, J. (2011). Should Africa Industrialize ? (Working Paper No. 2011/47).

Page, J. (2018). Rowing against the current: Diversification in Africa’s resource-rich economies (WIDER Working Paper 2018/68, No. 68).

Panayiotopoulos, P. (2001). The East Asian NICs: Export orientated industrialisation (EOI). In G. Capps & P. Panayiotopoulos (Eds.), World Development (pp. 78–87). Pluto Press.

Panayiotopoulos, P. (2017). The Latin American NICs: In G. Capps & P. Panayiotopoulos (Eds.), World Development (pp. 68–77). Pluto Press.

Patel, H. H. (1987). South Africa's destabilization policy. The Round Table, 76(303), 302–310.

Peres, W., & Primi, A. (2009). Theory and practice of industrial policy - Evidence from the Latin American experience. In UN, Series Desarrollo Prodoctivo (Desarrollo Productivo, Vol. 187, February). CEPAL.

Peters-Berries, C. (2010). Regional iIntegration in Southern Africa. In WEnt.

Peterson, M. J. (2016). Resolution Adopted by the General Assembly on 25 July 2016: Third Industrial Development Decade for Africa (2016-2025), 4, In The Oxford Handbook on the United Nations.

Pillay, D. (2010). Introduction: South Africa and the eco-logic of the global capitalist crisis. In J. Daniel, P. Naidoo, D. Pillay, & R. Southall (Eds.), New South African Review 1: Development or Decline? (pp. 25–38). Wits University Press.

Pollard, S. (1990). Typology of Industrialization Processes in the Nineteenth Century.

Prebisch, R. (1950). The Economic Development of Latin America and its Principal Problems.

Prebisch, R. (1964). Towards a New Trade Policy for Development.

Rakner, L., & Tungodden, B. (2002). Regional integration in Southern Africa. In A. du Pisani, G. Erasmus, & T. Hartzenberg (Eds.), Forum for Development Studies (Vol. 29, Issue 1).

Rao, G. P. (1979). Industrialization: Key and Concomitant Variables. 14(4), 589–596.

Rasiah, R., & Yun, H. A. (2009). Industrializing Southeast Asia. Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, 14(2), 107–115.

Rekiso, Z. S. (2017). Rethinking regional economic integration in Africa as if industrialization mattered. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 43, 87–98.

Ricks, T. (2016). From the Abuja Treaty to the Sustainable Development Goals: Realizing economic integration in Africa. North Carolina Journal of International Law & Commercial Regulation, 42(1), 249–274.,ip,shib,uid&db=bsu&AN=121319538&lang=es&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Rodrik, D. (2004). Industrial Policy for the Twenty-First Century (No. 04–047).

Rodrik, D. (2008). Normalizing Industrial Policy (No. 3). The World Bank.

Rodrik, D. (2009). Growth after the Crisis (No. 65).

Rodrik, D. (2015). Premature deindustrialization. Journal of Economic Growth, November, 1–33.

Rodrik, D. (2016a). An African growth miracle? Journal of African Economies, 27(1), 10–27.

Rodrik, D. (2016b). Premature deindustrialization. Journal of Economic Growth, 21(1), 1–33.

Rodrik, D., McMillan, M., & Sepúlveda, C. (2016). Structural change, fundamentals, and growth. In Structural Change, Fundamentals, and Growth: A Framework and Case Studies. International Food Policy Research Institute.

Romano, L., & Traù, F. (2017). The nature of industrial development and the speed of structural change. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 42, 26–37.

Rossouw, J. (2006). South Africa’s Role in Macroeconomic Convergence in SADC. SARB Conference, 155–162.

Russell, M. (2014). Mauritius snapshot: Textile and apparel industry in brief.

SADC. (1992). Declaration and Treaty of the Southern African Development Community.

SADC. (1996). Protocol on Trade.

SADC. (2003). Southern African Development Community: Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan.

SADC. (2012). SADC Industrial Development Policy Framework.

SADC. (2014). The 34th Ordinary Summit of SADC Heads of State and Government Precedings Meeting.

SADC. (2015). SADC Industrialisation Strategy and Roadmap (April).

SADC. (2016). Agreement on the Operationalisation of the SADC Regional Development Fund August 2016.

SADC. (2018). Review of the Implementation of the Industrial Upgrading and Modernisation Plan in the SADC Region.

SADC. (2020a). SADC Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan (RISDP) 2020-2030.

SADC. (2020b). SADC Selected Economic and Social Indicators (September).

SADCC. (1980). Declaration Southern Africa: Toward Economic Liberation.

SADC Selected Indicators. (2018). Southern African Development Community: SADC Facts & Figures.

Saha, S. K. (1991). Role of industrialisation in development of industrialisation Sub-Saharan Africa: A critique of World Bank’s approach. Economic and Political Weekly, 26(48), 2753–2762.

Sahin, B. E. (2019). Impact of high technology export on economic growth: An analysis on Turkey. Journal of Business, Economics and Finance-JBEF, 8(3), 165–172.

Sai-Wing Ho, P. (2012). Revisiting Prebisch and Singer: Beyond the declining terms of trade thesis and on to technological capability development. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 36(4), 869–893.

Salazar-Xirinachs, J. M. (1993). The integrationist revival: A return to Prebisch’s policy prescriptions. CEPAL Review, 50(1), 21–40.

Salazar-Xirinachs, J. M., Nübler, I., & Kozul-Wrigh, R. (2014). Transforming economies: Making industrial policy work for growth, jobs and development. In International Labour Review (Vol. 153, Issue 3).

Sandbrook, R. (2005). Origins of the Democratic Developmental State: Interrogating Mauritius. Canadian Journal of African Studies / Revue Canadienne Des Études Africaines, 39(3), 549–581.

SARDC. (2015). Prospects for Industrial Transformation in SADC: Towards a Regional Strategy and Roadmap.

SARDC. (2017, March 17). SADC Extraordinary Summit to cost industrialization programme | Knowledge for Development.

SARDC. (2019, September 13). SADC establishes business council Knowledge for Development.

Saylor, R. (2012). Probing the historical sources of the Mauritian miracle: Sugar exporters and state building in colonial Mauritius. Review of African Political Economy, 39(133), 465–478.

Schiff, M., & Winters, L. A. (2003). Regional integration and development. In Mondes en Developpement (Vols. 115–116, Issue 3). World Bank and Oxford University Press.

Schmitz, H. (2011). Industrialisation strategies in less developed countries: Some lessons of historical experience. In R. Kaplinsky & K. Raphie (Eds.), Third World Industrialization in the 1980s: Open Economies in a Closing World (pp. 1–20). Taylor & Francis Group.

Schoeman, M. (2002). From SADCC to SADC and Beyond: The Politics of Economic Integration.

Sekgoma, G. (2001). The Lagos Plan of Action and some aspects of development in Sierra Leone. Botswana Journal of African Studies, 8(2), 105–116. Journals/pdfs/Utafiti/s4NS/aejps004NS008.pdf

Sekwati, L. (2011). Botswana: A note on economic diversification. Botswana Journal of Economics, 7(11), 79–85.

Sekwati, L. (2012). Economic diversification: The case of Botswana. Revenue Watch Institute, 14(3), 501–525.

Sen, K. (2016). The Determinants of Structural Transformation in Asia: A Review of the Literature (ADB Economics Working Paper Series, No. 478).

Shinyekwa, I. M. B., Lakuma, C. P., & Munu, M. L. (2019). The effects of regional economic communities on industrialization: The case of COMESA. African Development Review, 31(4), 506–516.

Siddiqui, K. (2012). Developing countries’ experience with neoliberalism and Ggobalisation. Research in Applied Economics, 4(4), 12–37.

Signe, L. (2015). The potential of manufacturing and industrialization in Africa: Trends, opportunities, and strategies.

Simandan, D. (2009). Industrialization: Definitions and Measurement.

Sloan, J. W. (1971). The developmental regionalism: Benefits, distribution, obstacles and capabilities. Journal of Common Market Studies, 10(2), 138–162.

Söderbaum, F. (2013). Rethinking regions and regionalism. Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, 14(2), 9–18.

Soderbaum, F., & Brolin, T. (2016). Support to regional cooperation and integration in Africa - What workd and why? In Geschäftsbericht (Vol. 6000, Issue 3). Elanders Sverige.

Statista. (2021). Population in Africa. African Countries With the Largest Population as of 2021.

Statistics Mauritius. (2020). Manufacturing Industry.

Stephan, H., & Fane Hervey, A. (2008). New regionalism in southern Africa: Functional developmentalism and the Southern African power pool. Politeia, 27(3), 54–76.

Storm, S. (2017a). Debate: structural change. Development and Change, 46(4), 666–699.

Storm, S. (2017b). The political economy of industrialization: Introduction to development and change. Development and Change, 00(0), 1–19.

Su, D., & Yao, Y. (2017). Manufacturing as the key engine of economic growth for middle-income economies. Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, 22(1), 47–70.

Subramanian, A. (2009). The Mauritian success story and its lessons. In Achieving Development Success (2009/36).

Subramanian, A., & Roy, D. (2001). Who can explain the Mauritian miracle?: Meade, Romer, Sachs, or Rodrik? In Search of Prosperity: Analytic Narratives on Economic Growth (01/116; IMF Working Paper).

Sugihara, K. (2019). Multiple Paths to Industrialization: A Global Context of the Rise of Emerging States. Springer, Singapore.

Szirmai, A. (2012). Industrialisation as an engine of growth in developing countries, 1950-2005. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 23(4), 406–420.

Szirmai, A., Naude, W., & Alcorta, L. (2013). Pathways to Industrialization in the Twenty-First Century (A. Szirmai, W. Naude, & L. Alcorta (eds.)). Oxford University Press.

Szirmai, A., & Verspagen, B. (2015). Manufacturing and economic growth in developing countries, 1950-2005. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 34, 46–59.

Tandrayen-Ragoobur, V. (2010). The services sector and economic growth in Mauritius. A bounds testing aApproach to cointegration. University of Mauritius Research Journal, 16(1), 313–331.

Taylor, I. (2002). Botswana’s “Developmental State” and the Politics of Legitimacy.

Teal, F. (2002). Industrial development and policy in Africa: Issues of de-industrialisation and development strategy. Journal of African Economics, 10(3), 336–337.

Tilly, R. (2010). Industrialization as a historical process. European History Online.

Tregenna, F. (2015). Deindustrialisation, structural change and sustainable economic growth. In United Nations Industrial Development Organization (Inclusive and Sustainable Industrial Development Working Paper Series, Issue 2).

Treichel, V. (2016). Comments on “New thinking on industrial policy: Country case studies of successful and unsuccessful industrial policies — The return of industrial policy in Brazil.” In The Industrial Policy Revolution I (pp. 340–347).

Trindade, V. (2005). The big push, industrialization and international trade: The role of exports. Journal of Development Economics, 78(1), 22–48.

Tsedu, M. (2015). Reflections on the National Industrial Policy Framework and industrial implementation in South Africa post-2007 (5/2015; December).

Tshego, B., & McDonald, S. (2016). Impact assessment of the SADC FTA on the SACU member states: A CGE analysis. Botswana Journal of Economics, Vol. 13(1), 1–25.

Tsie, B. (1996a). States and markets in the Southern African development community (SADC): Beyond the neo‐liberal paradigm. Journal of Southern African Studies, 22(1), 75–98.

Tsie, B. (1996b). The political context of Botswana’s development performance. Journal of Southern African Studies, 22(4), 599–616.

UJCI. (2017). Regional Industrialisation in Southern Africa: The Role of African–Sino Partnerships.

UN. (2020). Envision2030: 17 goals to transform the world for persons with disabilities. Sustainable Development Goals.

UNCTAD. (2013). Intra-African Trade: Unlocking Private Sector Dynamism. ISBN 978-92-1-112866-6 eISBN 978-92-1-056143-3 ISSN 1990–5114

UNCTAD. (2016a). The role of development banks in promoting growth and sustainable development in the South. In Unctad (Issue UNCTAD/GDS/ECIDC/2016/1).

UNCTAD. (2016b). The structural transformation process: Trends, theory, and empirical findings.

UNCTAD. (2016c). Trade and Development Report 2016: Structural transformation for inclusive growth.

UNCTAD. (2020). Industrial Policy and Strategic Plan for Mauritius: 2020-2025.

UNECA. (2013). Industrialization for an emerging Africa (No. 46).

UNECA. (2015). Industrializing Through Trade.

UNECA. (2016). Transformative industrial policy for Africa. In Economic Commission for Africa.

UNECA. (2020a). Africa’s Economic Transformation: Industrialisation as the Masterpiece.’s-economic-transformation-industrialisation-masterpiece

UNECA. (2020b). Strategies and Policies for the Integration of Micro, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises into the Industrialization Process in Southern Africa.

UNECA & AUC. (2011). Economic Report on Africa 2011: Governing Development in Africa – The Role of the State in Economic Transformation.

UNIDO. (2011). Industrial Energy Efficiency for Sustainable Wealth Creation - Capturing Environmental, Economic and Social Dividends.

UNIDO. (2016a). Implementation of the Third Industrial Development Decade for Africa.

UNIDO. (2016b). Industrialization in Africa and least developed countries: Boosting growth, creating jobs, promoting inclusiveness and sustainability. In United Nations Industrial Development Organization.

UNIDO. (2018a). Demand for manufacturing: Driving inclusive and sustainable industrial development.

UNIDO. (2018b). Inclusive and sustainable industrial development. In United Nations Industrial Development Organization/Unido/ (Vol. 21).

UNIDO. (2019). Statistical indicators of inclusive and sustainable industrialization. Biennial Progress Report 2019, 60.

UNIDO. (2020a). Can Africa’s Third Industrial Development Decade Deliver? | UNIDO.

UNIDO. (2020b). How Industrial Development Matters to the Well-being of the Population: Some Statistical Evidence.

UNIDO. (2020c). Industrial Upgrading and Modernization Programme (IUMP). United Nations Industrial Development Organization.

UNIDO. (2020d). Industrialization as the Driver of Sustained Prosperity.

UNIDO. (2020e). World manufacturing production. In UNIDO Statistics.

Valentine, T. (2000). Botswana’s Financial Assistance Policy and the Indigenization of Industrial Employment (Vol. 0430, November).

Vandemoortele, M., & Bird, K. (2011). Progress in economic conditions: Sustained success against the odds in Mauritius.

Vanheukelom, J., & Bertelsmann-Scot, T. (2016). The political economy of regional integration in Africa: The Southern African Development Community (SADC) Report. In Econ Change Restruct.

Vickers, B., & Motsamai, D. (2011a). Industrial Policy Cooperation in Southern Africa: Exploring the Opportunities and Challenges.

Vickers, B., & Motsamai, D. (2011b). SADC Integration, the nation-state and industrialisation. In B. Vickers & D. Motsamai (Eds.), Industrial Policy Cooperation in Southern Africa: Exploring the Opportunities and Challenges. Institute for Global Dialogue.

Volz, U. (2013). Regional Integration, Economic Development and Global Governance. Edward Elgar Publishing Limited: UK.

Wa Githinji, M., & Adesida, O. (2011). Industrialization, Exports and the Developmental State in Africa: The Case for Transformation (Economics Department Working Paper Series, No. 126).

Wade, R. (2004). Governing the Market: Economic Theory and the Role of Government in East Asian Industrialization. Princeton University Press.

Wade, R. H. (2014). “Market versus State” or “Market with State”: How to impart directional thrust. Development and Change, 45(4), 777–798.

WDI. (2020). WDI - World Development Indicators Reports.

Weimer, D., & Wissensc, S. (1991). The Southern African Development Coordination Conference ( SADCC ): Past and future. Africa Insight, 21(2), 78–89.

Weiss, J. (2002). Industrialisation and Globalisation Theory and Evidence from Developing Countries. Routledge.

Weiss, J. (2013). Industrial policy in the twenty-first century: Challenges for the future. L. A. Adam Szirmai, Wim Naudé (Ed.), Pathways to Industrialization in the Twenty-First Century (pp. 393–412). Oxford University Press.

Weiss, J. (2015). The role of development banks in developing countries. Development Economics, 8(May), 1–21.

Weiss, J. (2018). Lewis on industrialisation and industrial policy. Journal of International Development, 30(1), 61–79.

Wells, H., & Thirlwall, A. P. (2003). Testing Kaldor’s growth laws across the countries of Africa. African Development Review, 15(2–3), 89–105.

Wentworth, L., Markowitz, C., Ngidi, Z., Makwati, T., & Grobbelaar, N. (2018). SADC Regional Development Fund Operationalisation Imminent?.

Wolf, C., & Christina Wolf. (2016). China and latecomer-industrialisation processes in Sub-Saharan Africa: Situating the role of (industrial) policy. African Review of Economics and Finance, 8(1), 45–77.

Wong, K., & Yip, C. K. (1999). Industrialization, economic growth, and international trade. Review of International Economics, 7, 522–540.

World Bank. (1987). Barriers to adjustment and growth in the world economy industrialization and foreign trade World Development Indicators. In World Development Report.

World Bank. (2012). Botswana Development Policy Review: An Agenda for Competitiveness and Diversification.

World Bank. (2020a). World Development Indicators. In Data Bank | World Development Indicators.

World Bank. (2022b). South Africa Overview:

World Bank Group. (2020). Regional Integration: Understanding Poverty.

World Economic Forum. (2012). The Future of Manufacturing: Opportunities to drive economic growth.

Wu, H. X. (2013). Rethinking China’s path of industrialization. In L. A. Adam Szirmai, Wim Naudé (Ed.), Pathways to Industrialization in the Twenty-First Century (pp. 155–192). Oxford University Press.

Yaïche, M. M., & Asia, S. (2019). Structural Transformation, Economic Growth and Employment Creation in Africa : An Empirical Analysis Africa. International Journal of English Literature and Social Sciences (2), 327–343.

Yirga Shumuye, M. (2015). The success stories of developmental state paradigm from Botswana and Mauritius: Lessons for the contemporary African countries. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 6(19).

Yongo-Bure, B. (2015). Regional development poles and self-sustaining development in Africa. In A. O. Olutayo & A. I. Adeniran (Eds.), Regional Economic Communities: Exploring the Process of Socio-economic Integration in Africa (1st ed., p. 146). CODESRIA.

Zafar, A. (2011). An economic success story.

Zalk, N. (2015). Industrial policy in a harsh climate: The Case of South Africa. Transforming Economies - Making Industrial Policy Work for Growth, Jobs and Development, March, 1–44.

Zamfir, L. (2016). Africa’s economic growth: Taking off or slowing down?

Zarenda, H. (2012). A comprehensive regional industrial policy for SADC. (S12WP10/2012; Issue December).

Zizhou, F. (2009). Linkages between Trade and Industrial Policies in Botswana.

Zondi, S. (2020). The pursuit of developmental regional integration in Southern Africa and the role of South Africa. In A. M. B. Mangu (Ed.), Regional Integration in Africa: What Role for South Africa (pp. 77–103). Brill.

Zondi, S., & Mulaudzi, C. (2010). SADC integration and poverty eradication in Southern Africa: An appraisal. Africa Insight, 39(4), 35–52.

May 18, 2023

Details about the available publication format: PDF

ISBN-13 (15)
Date of first publication (11)

Details about the available publication format: EPUB

ISBN-13 (15)
Date of first publication (11)

Details about the available publication format: XML

ISBN-13 (15)
Date of first publication (11)

Details about the available publication format: Paperback

ISBN-13 (15)
Date of first publication (11)
Physical Dimensions
170mm x 244mm x 10.78mm