Cover Image

Transformation and Legitimation in Post-apartheid Universities: Reading Discourses from ‘Reitz’

Two decades after the democratic transition, South African universities are in turmoil. Whilst the old is slowly becoming unhinged, reimagining the new is protracted and contested. The challenges ahead, including a funding crunch, are formidable and bear the imprint of South African postcolonial specificities and global transformations in higher education. At this moment, critical and engaged socio-historical scholarship is indispensable. Transformation and Legitimation in Post-apartheid Universities: Reading discourses from Reitz is such a work. Revisiting the notorious Reitz incident of 2008, when a satirical video made by students from the University of the Free State (UFS) to register their resistance to the racial integration of black' students into historically white' residences became public, the text offers an analysis of the broader cultural and socio-political context that constituted the conditions of possibility for the incident and its aftermath. Attention is shifted from the principal actors in the original drama a handful of students and workers to a critical interrogation of the broader structures, positions, discourses and practices that fed into the Reitz incident', reaching into the present with violent and racially-charged student and worker protests in 2016. Van der Merwe and Van Reenen deliver a theoretically-rich analysis of the anatomy of current contestations about race and transformation in higher education in South Africa, the resultant legitimation crisis facing the UFS and South African universities more generally, as well as ways to restore institutional legitimacy and reputation, focusing on instituting deeper, more durable change that unlocks the promise of democracy. Dr Irma du Plessis University of Pretoria

Authors:
J.C. van der Merwe (ed)
University of the Free State
Dionne van Reenen (ed)
University of the Free State
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2406-6808

Product details

Chapters

  • 1. ‘Reitz’: A placeholder for a bigger story?
  • 2. (Mis)understanding transformation at the University of the Free State
    Management perspectives and initiatives, 1980-2008
  • 3. Resisting transformation at the University of the Free State
    Student life and residence traditions, 1990–2008
  • 4. No going back – Residence integration at the UFS and ‘Reitz’ as a legitimation crisis
  • 5. Turning the tide
    Reconciliation, restoration and retributive justice
  • 6. Rethinking transformation at the University of the Free State

References

Acuña Cantero, J. 2011. After truth: The Truth and Reconciliation Commission, media and race relations in post-apartheid South Africa. Government Honours Papers. Paper 30. Available at http://digitalcommons.conncoll.edu/govhp/30. Accessed November 2013.

Arnold, T.W. 2000. The folklore of capitalism. Washington: Beard Books.

Aune, D.E. (1983). Prophecy in early Christianity and the ancient Mediterranean world. Grand Rapids, MI: William B Eerdmans Publishing.

Badat, S. 2007. Higher education transformation in South Africa post 1994. Towards a critical assessment. Solomon Mahlangu Education Lecture. Constitutional Hill, 12 June 2007. Johannesburg, South Africa: Centre for Education and Policy Development.

Badat, S. 2010. The challenges of transformation in higher education and training institutions in South Africa. Paper commissioned by the Development Bank of Southern Africa. Available at http://www.dbsa.org/EN/About-Us/Publications/Documents/The%20challenges%20of%20transformation%20in%20higher%20education%20and%20training%20institutions%20in%20South%20Africa%20by%20Saleem%20Badat.pdf. Accessed 17 April 2014.

Benoit, W.L. 1997. ‘Image repair discourse and crisis communication’. In Public Relations Review, 23(2): 177–186. Available at www.ou.edu/deptcomm/dodjcc/groups/98A1/Benoit.htm. Accessed July 2014.

Blaine, S. 2007. ‘FF+ drops case on integration’. Business Day, 26 October 2007. Available at http://www.bdlive.co.za/articles/2007/10/26/ff-drops-case-on-integration. Accessed February 2012.

Blaine, S. 2008. ‘Leaders plead for apartheid’. The Weekender, 1 March 2008.

Blaine, S. 2010. ‘Restorative justice in “Reitz four” case starts’. Business Day, 11 February 2010. Bloemfontein: Reitz archives, Institute for Reconciliation and Social Justice, University of the Free State.

Boesak, A. & DeYoung, C.P. 2012. Radical reconciliation. Beyond political pietism and Christian quietism. New York: Orbis Books.

Bohler-Muller, N. 2008. ‘Party must stop using the language of human rights to justify racism’. The Herald, 4 March 2008. Bloemfontein: Reitz archives, Institute for Reconciliation and Social Justice, University of the Free State.

Boxenbaum, E. 2008. ‘The process of legitimation’. In S. Scheur & J.D. Scheur (Eds), The anatomy of change: A neo-institutionalist perspective, pp. 237–262. Copenhagen: CBS Press.

Bryson, D. 2014. It’s a black white thing. Forgiveness isn’t for sissies. Cape Town: Tafelberg.

Bundy, C. 2006. ‘Global patterns, local options? Changes in higher education internationally and some implications for South Africa’. In Kagisano: Ten Years of Higher Education under Democracy, 4: 1–20.

Bunting, I. 2002. ‘The higher education landscape under apartheid’. In N. Cloete et al. (Eds), Transformation in higher education: Global pressures and local realities, pp. 58–86. Cape Town: Juta.

Buys, R. 2014a. ‘Residence traditions are a hangover from a discarded era’. Mail & Guardian, 25 August 2014. Available at http://mg.co.za/article/2014-08-25-residence-traditions-are-a-hangover-from-a-discarded-era. Accessed 16th September 2014.

Buys, R. 2014b. ‘Student aspirations key to change’. Mail & Guardian, 29th August 2014. Available at http://mg.co.za/article/2014-08-29-student-aspirations-key-to-change. Accessed 16th September 2014.

Chaison, G.N. & Bigelow, B.N. 2002. Unions and legitimacy. New York: Cornell University Press.

CHE (Council on Higher Education). 2002. Policy report: Promoting good governance in South African higher education. Pretoria: CHE.

CHE (Council on Higher Education). 2008a. Audit report of the University of the Free State. Report of the Higher Education Quality Committee to the University of the Free State, March 2008. Pretoria: CHE. Available at http://cdn.mg.co.za/uploads/2009/04/30/racism-report.pdf. Accessed June 2013.

CHE (Council on Higher Education). 2008b. Executive summary: Audit report of the University of the Free State. Report of the Higher Education Quality Committee to the University of the Free State, March 2008. Pretoria: CHE. Available at http://www.che.ac.za/sites/default/files/institutional_audits/institutional_audits_2006_ufs_executive_summary.pdf. Accessed June 2013.

Chelemu, K. 2009. ‘Jansen “racists” pardon slated’. Sunday Times, 17 October 2009. Bloemfontein: Reitz archives, Institute for Reconciliation and Social Justice, University of the Free State.

Cloete, H. 2007. ‘VF+ trek hofaansoek teen UV terug’. Die Volksblad, 24 October 2007. Bloemfontein: Reitz archives, Institute for Reconciliation and Social Justice, University of the Free State.

Cloete, H. 2008a. ‘Kampus walgvideo’. Beeld, 28 February 2008. Bloemfontein: Reitz archives, Institute for Reconciliation and Social Justice, University of the Free State.

Cloete, H. 2008b. ‘Komiteelede keer terug na hul koshuise’. Die Volksblad, 23 February 2008. Bloemfontein: Reitz archives, Institute for Reconciliation and Social Justice, University of the Free State.

Cloete, H. 2008c. ‘Só ontvou saga rondom UV se integrasiebeleid’. Die Volksblad, 23 February 2008. Bloemfontein: Reitz archives, Institute for Reconciliation and Social Justice, University of the Free State.

Cloete, H. 2008d. ‘Studente het ons met video bedrieg’. Die Volksblad, 29 February 2008. Bloemfontein: Reitz archives, Institute for Reconciliation and Social Justice, University of the Free State.

Cloete, H. 2008e. ‘Studente se leiers ontevrede met UV se bestuur’. Die Volksblad, 18 January 2008. Bloemfontein: Reitz archives, Institute for Reconciliation and Social Justice, University of the Free State.

Cloete, N. 2008. ‘Citizenship, racism and campus culture’. University World News, 23 March 2008. Available at http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20080320161335418.Accessed June 2014.

Cohen, T. 2008. ‘A mockery of SA’s shared humanity’. The Weekender, 1 March 200. Bloemfontein: Reitz archives, Institute for Reconciliation and Social Justice, University of the Free State.

Coombs, W.T. 2007. ‘Protecting organization reputations during a crisis: The development and application of situational crisis communication theory’. In Corporate Reputation Review, 10(3): 163–178. Available at http://www.palgrave-journals.com/crr/journal/v10/n3/full/1550049a.html#bib27. Accessed November 2013.

Cross, M. 2004. ‘Institutionalizing campus diversity in South African higher education: Review of diversity scholarship and diversity education’. In Higher Education. (47): 387-410. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

DBE (Department of Basic Education). 2008. ‘Racism committee members announced, 31 March 2008’. Department of Basic Education. Available at http://www.education.gov.za/Newsroom/MediaReleases/2008/tabid/244/ctl/Details/mid/590/ItemID/2864. Accessed October 2013.

Dibetle, M. Pretorius, C. & Gower, P. 2008. Racist video: ‘FF+ must take rap’. Mail and Guardian, 6 March 2008. Bloemfontein: Reitz archives, Institute for Reconciliation and Social Justice, University of the Free State.

Dlamini, J. 2008. ‘Understand this: we are people, not types’. The Weekender, 1 March 2008. Bloemfontein: Reitz archives, Institute for Reconciliation and Social Justice, University of the Free State.

Dlodlo, C. 2008. ‘Pa’s van Kovsie-studente se berigte is eensydig’. Die Volksblad, 29 February 2008. Bloemfontein: Reitz archives, Institute for Reconciliation and Social Justice, University of the Free State.

DOE (Department of Education). 1997. Education White Paper 3: A Programme for the Transformation of Higher Education. Pretoria: DOE.

DOE (Department of Education). 2008. Report of the ministerial committee on transformation and social cohesion and the elimination of discrimination in public higher education institutions: Final report. Pretoria: DOE. Available at http://us-cdn.creamermedia.co.za/assets/articles/attachments/21831_racismreport.pdf. Accessed September 2012.

Dowling, J. & Pfeffer, J. 1975. ‘Organizational legitimacy: Social values and organizational behaviour’. In Pacific Sociological review, 18(1): 122–136. Available at http://www.jstor.org/stable/1388226. Accessed June 2014.

Dugger, C.W. 2008.’ On campus, a video reminder of apartheid’s pain’. The New York Times, 10 March 2008. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/10/world/africa/10safrica.html?_r=0. Accessed March 2014.

Dullay, P.R. 2008. ‘Apartheid’s living legacy.’ Sunday Tribune, 9 March 2008. Available at https://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-176380664.html. Accessed June 2013.

Duncan, N.J. 2010. Introductory remarks at the 5th colloquium of the Anti-Racism Network in Higher Education at the UFS. Transcription: University of the Free State. August 2010.

Durrheim, K, Mtose, X. & Brown, L. 2011. Race trouble: race, identity, and inequality in post-apartheid South Africa. Scottsville: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press.

Du Toit, F. & Doxtader, E. 2010. In the balance. South Africans debate reconciliation. Johannesburg: Jacana Media.

Du Toit, P. (2008). ‘Reitz-video gaan lei tot stereotipering, spanning’. Die Volksblad, 29 February 2008. Bloemfontein: Reitz archives, Institute for Reconciliation and Social Justice, University of the Free State.

Editorial. 2008. ‘Invasion of dignity’. The Witness, 28 February 2008. Available at http://www.news24.com/Archives/Witness/Invasion-of-dignity-20150430. Accessed July 2013.

Editorial. 2010. ‘Equality court to hear for redress for four university workers humiliated in student video’. Saturday Star, 3 July 2010. Bloemfontein: Reitz archives, Institute for Reconciliation and Social Justice, University of the Free State.

Elliker, F. Coetzee, J.K. & Kotze, P.C. (2013). ‘On the interpretive work of reconstructing discourses and their local contexts’ [58 paragraphs]. In Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 14(3), Art. 4, http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs130342.

Fairbanks, E. 2013. ‘A house divided’. Moment Magazine, May/June issue. Available at http://www.momentmag.com/a-house-divided/. Accessed 15 June 2014.

Fischer, A. (2008) Statement by Judge Faan Hancke, Chairperson of the Council of the University of the Free State (UFS), 8 March 2008. University of the Free State. Available at http://www.ufs.ac.za/templates/news-archive-item?news=924. Accessed July 2015.

Foucault, M. (1981) ‘The order of discourse’. In R. Young (Ed.), Untying the text. A post-structuralist reader. Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Fourie, F. 2003. Continuity and change, scholarship and community, quality and equity. Inauguration speech as rector and vice chancellor of the UFS, 7 February 2003. Available at http://apps.ufs.ac.za/media/dl/userfiles/documents/News/2003-02/6877-SpeechFourie.pdf. Accessed March 2014.

Fourie, F. 2004. From good to great: Firming up the foundations for a great, robust university – for the next 100 years. Address by the rector and vice-chancellor at the official opening of the UFS, Friday 6 February 2004. Available at: http://www.ufs.ac.za/templates/news-archive-item?news=322. Accessed March 2014.

Fourie, F. 2005. Understanding our journey from the old to the new: Further thoughts on managing change and continuity. Address by the rector and vice-chancellor at the official opening of the UFS, Friday 4 February 2005. Available at http://apps.ufs.ac.za/media/dl/userfiles/documents/News/2005-02/2005_02_Rectors_speech.doc. Accessed March 2014.

Fourie, F. 2006. Even better: Enhancing the quality of scholarship through innovation and critical reflection. Address by the rector and vice-chancellor at the official opening of the UFS, 3 February 2006. Available at: http://www.ufs.ac.za/templates/news-archive-item?news=319. Accessed March 2014.

Fourie, F. 2007. Beyond redress: Towards the promised land of a high quality, equitable, non-racial and non-sexist university. Address by the rector and vice-chancellor at the official opening of the UFS, 2 February 2007. Available at: http://www.ufs.ac.za/templates/news-archive-item?news=669. Accessed March 2014.

Fourie, F. 2008a. 2008-2012: The next phase in the national and international repositioning of the UFS. Address by the rector and vice-chancellor at the official opening of the UFS, 1 February 2008. Available at: http://www.ufs.ac.za/templates/news-archive-item?news=873. Accessed March 2014.

Fourie, F. 2008b. Getting beyond tolerance, accommodation and dominance: Challenges in changing university institutional culture. Conference on Changing Institutional Culture, University of Stellenbosch (30 May 2008).

Fourie, F. 2008c. ‘Reflections on the Reitz incident implications’. University World News, 23 March 2008. Available at http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20080320160825789. Accessed June 2014.

Fricker, M. 2007. Epistemic injustice, power and the ethics of knowing. UK: Oxford University Press.

Friedman, S. 2008. ‘Face race head-on’. University World News, 23 March 2008. Available at http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20080320155736847. Accessed June 2014.

Gazi, C. 2008. ‘Racism alive and well’. Mail & Guardian, 14 March 2008. Available athttp://mg.co.za/article/2008-03-14-march-14-to-19-2008.Accessed August 2013.

Gifford, G. 2008. ‘609-second video of shameless race hate’. The Star, 28 February 2008. Bloemfontein: Reitz archives, Institute for Reconciliation and Social Justice, University of the Free State.

Gouws, A. 2008. ‘From racism to valuing diversity’. University World News, 23 March 2008. Available at http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20080320160005293. Accessed June 2014.

Govender, P. 2008. ‘Second video emerges at hostel’. The Sunday Times, 2 March 2008. Bloemfontein: Reitz archives, Institute for Reconciliation and Social Justice, University of the Free State.

Govier, T. & Verwoerd, W. 2002. ‘The promise and pitfalls of apology’. In Journal of Social Philosophy, 33(1): 67–82.

Govier, T & Verwoerd, W. 2004. ‘How not to polarize “victims” and “perpetrators”’. In Peace Review: A Journal of Social Justice, 16(3): 371–377.

Habermas, J. 1973. Legitimation crisis. (M. McCarthy, Trans.). Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.

Habermas, J. 1976. Communication and the evolution of society. (T. McCarthy, Trans.). Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.

Habermas, J. 1989. The structural transformation of the public sphere. An inquiry into a category of bourgeois society. (T. Burger, Trans.). Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.

Habermas, J. 1994. The past as future. (M. Pensky, Ed. and Trans.). Cambridge, UK: Polity Press

Habermas, J. 1997. Towards a rational society. (J.J. Shapiro, Trans.). Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.

Habermas, J. 2001. On the pragmatics of social interaction. Preliminary studies in the theory of communicative action. (B. Fultner, Trans.). Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.

Habermas, J. 2006. Time of transitions. (C. Cronin and M. Pensky, Eds and Trans.). Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.

Hall, M. 2008. ‘Looking for consensus’. University World News, 23 March 2008. Available at http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20080320154627325. Accessed June 2014.

Hamber, B. & Kelly, G. 2004. A working definition of reconciliation. Belfast: Democratic Dialogue.

Hammoerabi. 2008. ‘Wie ly groter pyn en angs?’ Die Volksblad, 29 February 2008. Available at http://152.111.11.6/argief/berigte/volksblad/2008/02/29/VB/10/brhammoerabi.html. Accessed August 2013.

Hartley, R. 2009a. ‘Jonathan Jansen’s inaugural speech as vice chancellor of UFS – full text’. Times Live, 20 October 2009. Available at http://blogs.timeslive.co.za/hartley/2009/10/20/jonathan-jansens-inaugural-speech-as-vice-chancellor-of-ufs-full-text/. Accessed June 2013.

Hartley, R. 2009b. ‘Mary Metcalfe’s letter to Jonathan Jansen – full text’. Times Live, 22 October 2009. Available at http://blogs.timeslive.co.za/hartley/2009/10/22/mary-metcalfes-letter-to-jonathan-jansen-full-text/. Accessed July 2013.

Haupt, A. 2012. Static: Race and representation in post-apartheid music, media and film. Cape Town: HSRC Press.

Hayward, F.M. 2008. ‘Racism revisited in South Africa’. University World News, 23 March 2008. Available at http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20080320160424764. Accessed June 2014.

Heffer, C. 2008. ‘Has “democracy” changed this?’ The Citizen. 4 March 2008. Bloemfontein: Reitz archives, Institute for Reconciliation and Social Justice, University of the Free State.

Heuser, B. 2008. ‘Academic social cohesion within higher education’. In Prospects, 37: 293–303.

Higgins, J. 2007. ‘Institutional culture as keyword’. In Review of Higher Education of South Africa: 97–122. Pretoria: CHE.

Higgins, J. 2013. Academic freedom in a democratic South Africa. Essays and interviews on higher education and the humanities. Johannesburg: Wits University Press.

Hook, D. 2001. ‘Discourse, knowledge, materiality, history: Foucault and discourse analysis’. In Theory and Psychology, 11(4): 521–547.

Hoopstad. 2008. ‘Moenie mense dwing’. Die Volksblad, 28 February 2008. Bloemfontein: Reitz archives, Institute for Reconciliation and Social Justice, University of the Free State.

iGubuAgency. 2008. UFS: Project to increase diversity in residences. Residence Diversity Report, Phase A. 15 October 2008. Bloemfontein: University of the Free State.

iGubuAgency. 2009. UFS: Project to increase diversity in residences. Residence Diversity Report, Phase B. 15 October 2009. Bloemfontein: University of the Free State.

iGubuAgency. 2010. UFS: Project to increase diversity in residences. Residence Diversity Report, Revised Phase C. November 2010. Bloemfontein: University of the Free State.

Jacobs, D. 2008. ‘Video dui op dieper probleem’. Die Burger, 29 February 2008. Bloemfontein: Reitz archives, Institute for Reconciliation and Social Justice, University of the Free State.

Jansen, J. 2003. ‘Mergers in South African higher education: Theorising change in transitional contexts’. In Politikon, 30(1): 27–50.

Jansen, J. 2008a. ‘Bitter knowledge’. University World News, 23 March 2008. Available at http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20080320161054152. Accessed June 2014.

Jansen, J. 2008b. ‘National conversation needed’. The Times, 6 March 2008. Bloemfontein: Reitz archives, Institute for Reconciliation and Social Justice, University of the Free State.

Jansen, J. 2010. Welcoming address at the 5th colloquium of the Anti-Racism Network in Higher Education at the UFS. Transcription: University of the Free State. August 2010.

Jansen, J. 2011. ‘Behind the Reitz apology’. Times Live, 2 March 2011. Available at http://www.timeslive.co.za/opinion/columnists/2011/03/02/behind-the-reitz-apology Accessed 3 July 2013.

Jansen, J. 2016. Leading for change. Race, Intimacy and leadership on divided university campuses. New York: Routledge

Jordaan, W. 2008. ‘Outoritarisme verteer SA samelewing’. Beeld, 5 March 2008. Bloemfontein: Reitz archives, Institute for Reconciliation and Social Justice, University of the Free State.

Joubert, P. 2008. ‘Race torture at Free State’. Mail &Guardian, 13 March 2008. Bloemfontein: Reitz archives, Institute for Reconciliation and Social Justice, University of the Free State.

Keller, R. 2013. Doing discourse research. An introduction for social scientists. London: Sage Publications.

King, M.L. 1963. ‘I have a dream’. Available at http://www.ushistory.org/i-have-a-dream.htm. Accessed June 2014.

Kollapen, J. 2010. ‘Reconciliation: engaging with our fears and expectations’. In F. du Toit & E. Doxtader (Eds), In the balance: South Africans debate reconciliation, pp. 17–26. Johannesburg: Jacana Media.

Korrespondent. 2009. ‘Hulle het ons soos honde behandel’. Die Volksblad, 13 October 2009. Available at http://152.111.11.6/argief/berigte/volksblad/2009/10/13/VB/3/asreitz_1609.html. Accessed June 2013.

La Grange, B. 2008. ‘The fate of Reitz’. The Times, 7 March 2008. Bloemfontein: Reitz archives, Institute for Reconciliation and Social Justice, University of the Free State.

Lakoff, G. 2002. Moral politics: How liberals and conservatives think (2nd edition). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Lakoff, G. & Johnson, M. 1980. Metaphors we live by. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Lakoff, G. & Johnson, M. 1999. Philosophy in the flesh. The embodied mind and its challenge to Western thought. New York: Basic Books.

Lange, L. 2006. ‘Symbolic policy and performativity: South African higher education between the devil and the blue sea’. In Kagisano: Ten years of higher education under democracy, 4: 39–52.

Lange, L. 2013. ‘Transformation by numbers skims the surface of tertiary realities’. Mail & Guardian, 6 September 2013. Available at http://mg.co.za/article/2013-09-06-transformation-by-numbers-skims-the-surface-of-tertiary-realities. Accessed 5 February 2014.

Lewis, D. & Hames, M. 2011. ‘Gender, sexuality and commodity culture’. In Agenda: Empowering women for gender equality, 25(4): 2–7. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10130950.2011.633393. Accessed 3 June 2014.

Llewellyn, J. & Howse, R. 1998. Restorative justice: A conceptual framework. Paper prepared for the Law Commission of Canada, 1–112.

Loader, L. 2008. Statement by the rector and vice-chancellor of the University of the Free State (UFS), Prof. Frederick Fourie. University of the Free State, 26 February 2008. Available at http://www.ufs.ac.za/templates/news-archive-item?news=902. Accessed July 2015

Loader, L. 2011. ‘Ceremony and dialogue on reconciliation will bring closure to the Reitz incident’. UFS Media release, 8 February 2011. Available at: http://www.ufs.ac.za/templates/news-archive-item?news=1964 . Accessed March 2013.

Louw, P. 2014. .Varsity rage over racist ad. Times Live, 20 January 2014. Available at http://www.timeslive.co.za/news/2014/01/20/varsity-rage-over-racist-ad. Accessed July 2014.

Macgregor, K. 2009. ‘South Africa: Vice-chancellor faces death threats’. University World News, 01 November 2009. Available at http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20091101094630997. Accessed June 2014.

Magubane, K. 2014. ‘Racist and sexist terms rife at SA’s universities’. Business Day Live, 1 August 2014. Available at: http://www.bdlive.co.za/national/education/2014/08/01/racist-and-sexist-terms-rife-at-sas-universities. Accessed August 2014.

Marais, W. & de Wet, J.C. 2009. ‘The Reitz video: Inviting outrage and/or pity?’ In Communitas, 14(1): 30–41. Bloemfontein: University of the Free State.

Matthews S. (2010). ‘Differing interpretations of reconciliation in South Africa: A discussion of the home for all campaign’. In Transformation, 74: 1–22

Maughan, K. Smillie, S. & Visagie, N. 2008. ‘It wasn’t urine’. IOL News for South Africa and the world, 28 February 2008. Available at http://www.iol.co.za/news/south-africa/it-wasn-t- urine-1.391206?ot=inmsa. Accessed July 2014.

McDonald, P.K, Townsend, K.J & Wharton. A. 2013. ‘The legitimation and reproduction of discourse gaps in work-life balance’. In Personnel Review 2013, 205–222. Available at http://www.eprints.qut.edu.au/. Accessed December 2013.

McNamara, M.R., & Dhami, M.K. (2003). The role of apology in restorative justice. Paper presented at the 6th International Conference on Restorative Justice, SFU Centre for Restorative Justice, 1–4 June 2003. Vancouver, BC: Fraser University.

Misawa, M. 2010. ‘Racist and homophobic bullying in adulthood: Narratives from gay men of colour in higher education’. In New horizons in adult education and human resource development, 24(1): 7–23. Available at http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ929948.pdf. Accessed June 2014.

MKC (Matthew Kruger Consultants). 2005. Report on student life and racial integration at the University of the Free State. Bloemfontein: University of the Free State. Unpublished report.

Moiseyenko, O. 2005. ‘Education and social cohesion: Higher education’. In Peabody journal of education, 80 (4): 89–104.

Moja, T. 2008. ‘Racism – an event or a way of life on campuses?’ University world news, 23 March 2008. Available at http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20080320161747792 . Accessed June 2014.

Molapo, M. 2008. ‘Burdened by past’. Business Day, 28 February 2008: 14. Bloemfontein: Reitz archives, Institute for Reconciliation and Social Justice, University of the Free State.

Mordant-Bexiga, M. 2011. ‘Rugby, gender and capitalism: ‘”Sportocracy” up for sale?’ In Agenda: Empowering women for gender equity, 25(4): 69–74. Available at: http://dx.doi.ord/10.1080/10130950.2011.631778. Accessed June 2014.

Mzukwa, L. 2008. ‘Sadly, South Africans did not conquer racism in 1994’. Cape Times, 4 March 2008. Bloemfontein: Reitz archives, Institute for Reconciliation and Social Justice, University of the Free State.

Naidoo, P. 2010. Three thousand words on race’. In South African review of sociology, 41(1): 120–126.

Nel, W. 2014. ‘Suit up: History and Masculinity’s pact of violence’. Presentation at a debate on Residence Culture, Armentum Residence, 26 August 2014. Bloemfontein: University of the Free State. Received by personal correspondence from the author.

News 24. (2008). ‘UFS rector apologises to workers’. News 24 Archives. Available at http://www.news24.com/SouthAfrica/News/UFS-rector-apologises-to-workers-20080227. (No reporter cited). Accessed October 2015.

Nussbaum, M.C. 1998. Cultivating humanity. A classical defense of reform in liberal education. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying at school: What we know and what we can do. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

Ouma, G. 2008. ‘Living with racism at two universities’. University world news, 23 March 2008. Available at http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20080320161640617&query=ouma. Accessed June 2014.

PDM Task Force. 2006. Psychodynamic diagnostic manual. Silver Spring, MD: Alliance of Psychoanalytic Organizations.

Peters ‘M. 1995. ‘Legitimation problems. Knowledge and education in the postmodern condition’. In M. Peters M. (Ed.) Education and the postmodern condition, pp 21–38. Connecticut: Bergin and Garvey. Available at http://www.educ.fc.ul.pt/. Accessed December 2013.

Pienaar, H. 2008. ‘Laat waarheid seevier’. Burger, 30 April 2008. Bloemfontein: Reitz archives, Institute for Reconciliation and Social Justice, University of the Free State.

President Reitz Kamerwonings (n.d). President Reitz kamerwonings Heimat Mannerheim Bloemfontein. Available at http://www.presreitzheimat.co.za/kortliks-oor-reitz.html.

Rademeyer, J. 2008. ‘Die trop jag al lank’. Beeld, 1 March 2008. Available at http://152.111.1.88/argief/berigte/beeld/2008/03/04/B1/8/dl%20Reitzer.html. Accessed July 2013.

Ramphele, M. 2008. Laying ghosts to rest. Dilemmas of the transformation in South Africa. Cape Town: Tafelberg.

Rawson, C. 2014. ‘Dompas’. Student leverage magazine, 31 August 2014. Available from: http://studentleverage.co.za. Accessed 16 September 2014.

Retief, H. 2008. ‘Geskiedenis maak is rof ... maar iemand moet dit doen. Hanlie Retief gesels met Frederick Fourie’. Rapport, 3 March 2008. Available at http://152.111.1.87/argief/berigte/rapport/2008/03/03/RH/18/hanlie.html. Accessed March 2014.

Richards, J. & Van Buren, M. (Eds). 2000. Order, legitimacy and wealth in ancient states. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Rienstra, B. & Hook, D. 2006. ‘Weakening Habermas: The undoing of communicative rationality’. In Politikon: South African journal of political studies, 33(3): 313–339. Available at http://www.eprints.lse.ac.uk/955/. Accessed June 2014.

Rindova, V.P., Williamson, I.O., Petkova, A.P. & Sever, J.M. 2005. Being good or being known: Dimensions, antecedents and consequences of organizational reputation. In Academy of management:1–42. Available at http://www.mv.helsinki.fi/home/aula/Top20/Being%20good%20or%20being%20known%20.pdf. Accessed June 2014.

SAinfo reporter. 2014. ‘University turns humiliation into success’. South Africa.info, 30 June 2014. Available at http://www.southafrica.info/positivesa/freestate-university-300614.htm#.U_MwPV18-qE. Accessed July 2014.

SAHRC (South African Human Rights Commission). 2001. Report into initiation practices at educational institutions and a preliminary report on cultural initiations. Pretoria: South African Human Rights Commission.

Samuel, J. 2010. Introductory remarks at the 5th colloquium of the Anti-racism Network in Higher Education at the UFS. Transcription: University of the Free State. August 2010.

SAPA (South African Press Association). (2009a). ‘Jansen’s decision on Reitz Four “irrelevant” – Expert’. Politicsweb. 19 October 2009. Available at: http://www.politicsweb.co.za/poiliticsweb/view/politicsweb/en/page71656?oid=147472&sn=detail. Accessed June 2014.

SAPA (South African Press Association). (2009b). ‘Jansen Expects Reitz apology this month’. IOL, 13 November 2009. Available at http://www.iol.co.za/news/south-africa/jansen-expects-reitz-apology-this-month-1.464570. Accessed February 2014.

SAPA (South African Press Association). 2010. ‘Equality Court to hear cases for redress for four university workers humiliated in student video’. Saturday Star, 3 July 2010. Bloemfontein: Reitz archives, Institute for Reconciliation and Social Justice, University of the Free State.

Schmulow, A. 2008. ‘Ban contacts with University of the Free State’. University world news, 23 March 2008. Available at http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20080320160237505. Accessed June 2014.

Schoeman, P.G. 2000. Ideology, culture and education. Bloemfontein: Tekskor BK.

Seepe, S. 2008. ‘The enduring legacy of apartheid in education’. University world news, 23 March 2008. Available at http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20080320154109236. Accessed December 2013.

Shapiro, S. 1984. ‘Crisis of legitimation: Schools, society and declining faith in education’. In Interchange, 15(4): 26–39. Available at http://www.petajwhite.net/. Accessed November 2014.

Sharp, J. & Vally, R. 2008. ‘UFS video made by all of SA’. The Weekender, 8 March 2008. Bloemfontein: Reitz archives, Institute for Reconciliation and Social Justice, University of the Free State.

Shefer, T. 2012. Fraught Tenderness: Narratives on domestic workers in memories of apartheid. In Peace and conflict journal of peace psychology, 18(3): 303–317.

SIES. 2008. ‘Scum on the campus’. The Citizen, 28 February 2008. Bloemfontein: Reitz archives, Institute for Reconciliation and Social Justice, University of the Free State.

Smith, M. 2008. ‘It was just a student prank’. Sunday Tribune, 9 March 2008. Available at https://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-176380581.html. Accessed October 2014.

Sonn, F. 2003. Inauguration Speech, 7 February 2003. Available at: http://www.ufs.ac.za/templates/news-archive-item?news=364. Accessed March 2014.

Soudien, C. 2010a. Who takes responsibility for the ‘Reitz four’? Puzzling our way through higher education transformation in South Africa. In South African journal of science, 106(9/10): 1–4. Available at http://www.sajs.co.za/sites/default/files/publications/pdf/429-2726-6-PB.pdf. Accessed July 2014.

Soudien, C. 2010b. Some issues in affirmative action in higher education in South Africa. In South African journal of higher education, 24(2): 224–237.

Sparks, A. 1994. Tomorrow is another country. The inside story of South Africa’s negotiated settlement. Johannesburg: Jonathan Ball Publishers.

Staff reporter. 2008. ‘FF+ slams closure of Reitz men’s residence’. Mail & Guardian, 27 May 2008. Available at http://mg.co.za/article/2008-05-27-ff-slams-closure-of-reitz-mens-residence. Accessed June 2013.

Staff reporter. 2009. ‘Jansen: Reitz apology on the way’. Mail & Guardian, 13 November 2009. Available at http://mg.co.za/article/2009-11-13-jansen-reitz-apology-on-the-way. Accessed July 2014.

Staff reporter. 2010. ‘Workers in Reitz video want criminal trial to proceed’. Mail & Guardian, 23 February 2010. Available at http://mg.co.za/article/2010-02-23-workers-in-reitz-video-want-criminal-trial-to-proceed. Accessed July 2014.

Steyn, M. 2007. The diversity imperative: Excellence, institutional culture, and limiting assumptions at some historically white universities. In Communitas, 12: 1–18.

Steyn, M. 2009. Untitled. Paper presented at Race, Reitz and Rights. Joint Colloquium of the Transformation in Highly Diverse Societies Research Cluster. University of the Free State. 25 November 2009.

Strydom, J.F. & Mentz, M. (2008). Can psychology help South African to grow a new future? In Psytalk (Newsletter of the Psychological Society of South Africa), 2, July.

Strydom, K., Greyling, W. & Strydom, F. 2008. ‘Racism at Free State – anticipating the future’. University world news, 23 March 2008. Available at http://www.universityworldnews.com/article.php?story=20080320161530605. Accessed June 2014.

Suchman, M.C. 1995. ‘Managing legitimacy: Strategic and institutional approaches’. In Academy of management review, 20(3): 571–611. Available at http://www.socio-legal.sjtu.edu.cn. Accessed January 2014.

Suransky, C. & van der Merwe, J.C. 2014. ‘Transcending apartheid in higher education: Transforming an institutional culture’. In Race, ethnicity and education, 19(3): 577–5970.

Taylor, J. 2013. Facing the past in post-apartheid South Africa: Exploring apology and forgiveness as a response to the University of the Free State ‘Reitz affair. Paper presented at the 6th Global Conference, Forgiveness: Probing the Boundaries, Mansfield College, Oxford (6–8 July 2013). Available at http://www.inter-disciplinary.net/probing-the-boundaries/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/taylorforpaper.pdf

Taylor, J. 2014. A qualitative exploration of the Reitz reconciliation process as an exercise in restorative justice. Unpublished Masters of Arts dissertation. Bloemfontein: University of the Free State.

Thakali, T. 2009. ‘Money cannot buy our forgiveness’. Saturday Star, 24 October 2009. Available at https://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-210477400.html. Accessed July 2013.

Thakali, T. 2011. ‘Oprah hails SA ‘miracle’’. IOL News. Available at: http://www.iol.co.za/news/south-africa/free-state/oprah-hails-sa-miracle-1.1088585. Accessed July 2014.

Theron, B. 2008. ‘Ode aan pres Reitz kamerwonings’. Volksblad, 5 August 2008. Bloemfontein: Reitz archives, Institute for Reconciliation and Social Justice, University of the Free State.

‘Transforming society’. 2011, 25 February. Available at ww.sahrc.org.za/index.php/sahrc-media/speeches/item/79-message-delivered-by-the-sa-human-rights-commission-deputy-chairperson-commission-pregs-govender-on-the-occassion-of-the-reconciliation-seminar-at-the-university-of-free-state-on-Friday. Accessed March 2014.

Tromp, B. & Molosankwe, B. (2008). ‘Hostel of hate’. Saturday Star, 29 February 2008. Available at: http://www.security.co.za/fullStory.asp?NewsId=6798. Accessed July 2013.

Tutu, D. 2009. ‘Open letter from Archbishop Emeritus Desmond Tutu to Professor Jonathan Jansen’. Politics Web. Available at http://www.politicsweb.co.za/news-and-analysis/tutu-salutes-jonathan-jansen-for-inaugural-lecture. Accessed October 2009.

Tversky, A. & Kahneman, D. (1981). ‘The framing of decisions and the psychology of choice’. In Science, new Series, 211(4481): 453–458. Available at: http://psych.hanover.edu/classes/cognition/papers/tversky81.pdf. Accessed June 2014.

UFS (University of the Free State). n.d. Transformation report 2004–2014. Bloemfontein: University of the Free State. Available at http://institute.ufs.ac.za/dl/Userfiles/Documents/00000/74_eng.pdf. Accessed May 2015.

UFS (University of the Free State). 2006. From grey to gold: The first 100 years of the University of the Free State. Bloemfontein: University of the Free State.

UFS (University of the Free State). 2004. ‘Social Contract’ / Institutional Charter (Draft 3.1 – for comment and discussion). Bloemfontein: University of the Free State, Office of Diversity. Internal document made available to the authors by personal correspondence from the author.

UFS (University of the Free State). 2007. ‘Social Contract’ / Institutional Charter (Draft 4 – for comment and discussion). Bloemfontein: University of the Free State, Office of Diversity. Available at http://supportservices.ufs.ac.za/dl/userfiles/Documents/00000/71_eng.pdf. Accessed July 2013.

UFS (University of the Free State). 2008a. Reitz proposals. (Draft). 19 May 2008. Unpublished records.

UFS (University of the Free State). 2008b. University of the Free State institutional improvement plan, October 2008. University of the Free State. Available at http://www.ufs.ac.za/docs/default-source/policy-documents-documents/institutional-improvement-plan-oct-2008-849-eng.pdf?Sfvrsn=0. Accessed January 2013.

UFS (University of the Free State). 2010. Institutional statute. Government Gazette Vol. 542 No. 33490. Pretoria: Government Printer.

UFS (University of the Free State). 2012. University of the Free State integrated report 2012. Bloemfontein: University of the Free State. Available at http://www.ufs.ac.za/about-the-ufs/governance/integrated-report. Accessed September 2013.

Van der Merwe, J.C. 2007. ‘Teleurgesteld oor VF+ se beplande optog’. Die Volksblad, 24 July 2007. Available at http://152.111.11.6/argief/berigte/volksblad/2007/07/24/VB/6/hoofbriefintegrasie.html. Accessed July 2013.

Van der Merwe, J.C. 2009. ‘Communicative-philosophical challenges of managing a male residence at the University of the Free State’. In Communitas, 14: 43–56.

Van der Merwe, N. 2008. ‘Enigiets op netwerk te kry’. Die Volksblad, 3 March 2008. Available at http://152.111.11.6/argief/berigte/volksblad/2008/03/03/VB/2/nvmnetwerk.html. Accessed July 2013.

Van der Merwe & others v S. 2011. (2). SACR 509 (FB).

Van Heerden, E. 2008. ‘Die rituele van Reitz’. Die Burger, 8 March 2008. Bloemfontein: Reitz archives, Institute for Reconciliation and Social Justice, University of the Free State.

Van Loggerenberg, K. 2009. ‘Getting away with murder: From tribal guilt and personal remorse to individual responsibility’. Paper presented at Race, Reitz and Rights. Joint Colloquium of the Transformation in Highly Diverse Societies Research Cluster. University of the Free State. 25 November 2009.

Van Reenen, D. 2012. ‘Interfacing metaphors and postures for understanding deep communicative divisions at a tertiary institution’. In Communitas, 17: 163–179.

Van Reenen, D. 2013. Key structures in philosophical discourse. A universal semantics of kernel phrases. Masters manuscript. Bloemfontein: University of the Free State.

Van Reenen, D. 2016. ‘Maintaining plausible deniability: Scrutinizing mechanisms of subtle discrimination in a South African higher education institution’. In International journal of educational sciences. In press.

Van Rensburg, 2007. ‘Promised land a never land’. Dumela. Available at http://apps.ufs.ac.za/media/dl/userfiles/documents/Publications/Dumela/2007-Dumela-02.pdf. Accessed March 2014.

Van Rooyen, N. 2008. ‘Dis UV bestuur se skuld’. Die Volksblad, 1 March 2008. Van Vuuren, M. & Vivier, D. 2008. ‘Twee vertel hoe hulle op omstrede video afkom’. Rapport, 2 March 2008. Available at http://152.111.1.87/argief/berigte/rapport/2008/03/03/RH/5/mvvkovsies1.html. Accessed July 2013.

Van Wyk, M. 2005. ‘Ontgroening-suipfees eis Kovsie-eerstejaar’. Rapport, 12 March 2005. Available at http://152.111.1.87/argief/berigte/rapport/2005/03/13/R1/13/03.html. Accessed July 2013.

Verschoor, T. 2009. ‘Opening Speech: Acting rector: Prof. T Verschoor (30 January 2009)’ In University of the Free State annual report 2008, pp 108–115. Bloemfontein: UFS. Available at http://www.ufs.ac.za/docs/default-source/annual-report-to-the-minister-of-educatoin/2008-annual-report-94-eng.pdf?sfvrsn=0. Accessed March 2013.

Verschoor, T. 2011. Public apology. Read on behalf of the University of the Free State at the Reconciliation Ceremony, Centenery complex, 25 February 2011. Bloemfontein: University of the Free State. Internal document made available to the authors by personal correspondence from the author.

Verschoor, T. 2014. The mapping of Reitz. UFS. Unpublished manuscript. Internal document made available to the authors by personal correspondence from the author.

Visagie, P.J. 1990. Philosophy 600. The sub-theories of archaeological discourse analysis. Theory 1. Developing a semiological hermeneutics for archival discourse. Bloemfontein: University of the Free State. Unpublished manuscript.

Visagie, P.J. 2006. Discourse archaeology, anthropology, spirituality. A post-humanist critique. Bloemfontein: University of the Free State. Unpublished manuscript.

Wessels, L. 2014 ‘Studente kort regte waardes’. Media24 archives/Rapport , 26 May 2014. Available at http://m24arg02.naspers.com/argief/berigte/rapport/2014/05/26/7/25mei_ontgroen_31_0_127374849.html. Accessed: 26 May 2014.

Wessels, L., Fikeni, S., Tyobeka, M. & Rawat, R. 2014. Report of the Independent Investigation Task Team on the welcoming and introduction of first year students. Potchefstroom: North-West University.

Minutes of meetings and internal correspondence

University of the Free State. 2007–2008 Executive Committee of the Executive Management minutes.

University of the Free State. 2007-2008 Student Representative Council meeting minutes.

University of the Free State. 2007–2008 Senate minutes.

University of the Free State. 2007–2009 Council minutes.

University of the Free State. 2008. Personal communication and correspondence with the rector.

University of the Free State. 2014. Residence conduct booklet.

Websites

Law Library www.lawlibrary.co.za

O’Malley – The heart of hope http://www.nelsonmandela.org

South African History www.sahistory.org

The University of the Free State www.ufs.ac.za

Truth and Reconciliation Commission http://www.justice.gov.za/trc/

United Nations www.un.org

University of the Free State Support services http://www.supportservices.ufs.ac.za/

US History www.ushistory.org

World Elections http://welections.wordpress.com

Published
July 1, 2016

Details about the available publication format: PDF

PDF
ISBN-13 (15)
9781920382612
Date of first publication (11)
2016-07-01

Details about the available publication format: Paperback

Paperback
ISBN-13 (15)
9781920382605
Date of first publication (11)
2016-07-01
Physical Dimensions
175mm x 245mm